Francis Turbine

The Francis turbine is a type of water turbine that was developed by James B. Francis in Lowell, Massachusetts.

It is an inward-flow reaction turbine that combines radial and axial flow concepts. operate in a water head from 40 to 600 m (130 to 2,000 ft) and are primarily used for electrical power production.

Penstock (input pipes) diameters are between 3 and 33 feet (0.91 and 10.06 meters). The speed range of the turbine is from 75 to 1000 rpm. Wicket gates around the outside of the turbine's rotating runner control the rate of water flow through the turbine for different power production rates. Francis turbines are almost always mounted with the shaft vertical to isolate water from the generator.

Francis Turbine Consists Of The Following Main Parts:

Francis Turbine has a circular plate fixed to the rotating shaft perpendicular to its surface and passing through its center. This circular plate has curved channels on it; the plate with channels is collectively called as runner. The runner is encircled by a ring of stationary channels called as guide vanes. Guide vanes are housed in a spiral casing called as volute. The exit of the Francis turbine is at the center of the runner plate. There is a draft tube attached to the central exit of the runner. The design parameters such as, radius of the runner, curvature of channel, angle of vanes and the size of the turbine as whole depend on the available head and type of application altogether.


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